By Hayden Stebbins
Genus and Species: Lavandula spp. (latifolia, angustifolia, stoechas, intermedia)
Common Names: Lavender, English Lavender (L. angustifolia, formerly L. vera and L. spica), French or Spanish Lavender (L. stoechas), Mediterranean Lavender (L. latifolia) (Examine.com, 2017)
Energetics: Relaxing, warming
Properties: Analgesic (anodyne), antifungal, aromatic, relaxant, anxiolytic
Taste: Bitter, aromatic, astringent
Degree of Action: 3rd
Tissue State: Tense, cold, moist
Key Uses: Lavender is a nerve sedative for “headaches, anxiety, insomnia, and depression that comes from constant worry and for ‘high strung, nervous, self-absorbed people who need to relax’ (Easley, 2016e).” Lavender tincture is a powerful digestive bitter and carminative, and is a mild analgesic that “can ease headaches and migraines when taken soon after onset (Easley, 2016e).” Lavender essential oil is a topical analgesic (McDonald, Easley, & Chalmers, 2016). Indications for lavender include when the head droops from fatigue, nervous exhaustion, picky, detailed oriented people with insomnia or IBS, nervous high strung people who are too much “up in their heads,” and for asthma where nervousness is a factor (Easley, 2016d). The tincture is different than the essential oil (as it includes bitter properties) and combines well with rosemary and Holy Basil for stagnant depression from trauma or subclinical PTSD where a person is fixated on an event or trauma where the person is in fog and has difficulty thinking (Thomas Easley, personal communication, February 16, 2017). The essential oil can be used as a sleep aid inhaled before bed, or added to baths an hour before bed (Easley, 2016c).
History: Lavender essential oil was used as a perfume for cloth cleaning (Fenner, 1888b), as an ingredient in a jelly for “sun-burn, tan, chap, (and) chafe,” in lip salve, perfume (Fenner, 1888a), and the dried flowers were put in pillows as a sleep aid and as a part of a “vulnerary spirit” (Fennner, 1888c).
Matthew Wood says that lavender is a burn remedy and Deer medicine, and is used for dogs that get bitten by asps, grows the capillary bed, spreads the blood out and sooths, and that the higher in the mountain it grows, the higher quality the plant medicine (persona communication, January 11, 2017).
Lavender was an Unani Exhilarant which “arouses the vitality in the spiritual heart and inclines the spirit toward joy (Easley, 2016a).”
Externally, Lavendula angustifolia used as a “soothing lotion for the headache of debility and in fevers” and was added to smelling salts for headaches and tendency to faint (Felter, 1922). It was a stimulant and carminative, used to “allay gastric uneasiness and nausea, in flatulent colic, hysteria, nervous debility, general languor and tendency to fainting (Felter, 1922).” “For nervous and weak individuals, who faint easily and are prone to hysterical seizures (Felter, 1922).” It was used as a corrigent and adjuvant for “less agreeable medicines,” and used in Cypripedium by Scudder (Felter, 1922).
Lavender essential oil was used for “nervous languor and headache,” and used for “conditions of nervous debility” and as an adjuvant for other medicines (Wood & Bache, 1849).
“Lavender is the child’s stimulant, and nothing, so far as I am aware, exercises so kind an influence upon the digestive apparatus and the nervous system (Scudder, 1893).”
Clinical Uses: The following studies confirm lavender essential oil’s historical use as an anxiolytic, and also to improve some measurements of cognition elderly with cognitive decline. Aromatherapy with lavender essential oil has been shown to reduce heart rate, blood pressure, measures of anxiety, and elevate measurements of mood and relaxation without sedation. Time and proximity to olfactory organs appear to play a role in the effectiveness of aromatherapy; the further from the nose, the lesser the effect, and exposure times below 20 minutes were less effective than exposure times over. However, some studies did show that essential oil diffusers in rooms were effective as long as ventilation did not interfere with patient exposure to the essential oil.
Internal use of standardized encapsulated lavender essential oil (Silexan) has also been found to have an effect on generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, neurasthenia anxiety-related restlessness and disturbed sleep, and other anxiety related disorders comparable to benzodiazepines and SSRIs without many of the side effects associated with these drugs. There were some events of GI distress though not at rates higher than comparable drugs.
Smelling lavender essential oil soon after the onset of headache or migraine has been shown to decrease duration and severity of the headache or migraine.
Lavender essential oil works as an antifungal mixed with cajeput and thyme and diluted in a fixed oil (Easley, 2016b)
47 patients with migraine headaches took part in a single-blind clinical trial. The experiment group (n=28) was instructed to, in the early signs of headache, rub 2-3 drops of lavender essential oil onto their upper lip and after 15 minutes score the severity of their headaches at 30 minute intervals up to 2 hours according to Visual Analogue Scale. The placebo group (n=19) was told to do the same but with a placebo of liquid paraffin. The experimental group experienced a significant reduction in the severity of headache in the first through sixth headache. The placebo group experienced significant reduction in headache severity in the first through fourth headache. The difference in reduction of headache severity was statistically significant between the experimental and the placebo group. 92 of 129 headaches responded totally or partially to lavender within the first 2 hours of lavender use. 32 out of 68 headaches in the placebo group responded totally or partially to placebo. The percent of responders was significantly higher, and interval between intervention use and headache reduction significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the placebo group. 74% of experimental group patients had improvement in nausea, vomitin, photophobia, phonophobia, or osmophobia after lavender use compared to 58% of the placebo group. Lavender prevented spread of headache from its primare location in 66% of attacks whereas placebo prevented spread in 28% of attacks. Recurrence of headache within 24 hours of treatment occurred in 5 attacks in the experimental group and no times in the placebo group.
A review of eleven articles on randomized clinical trials involving aromatherapy as a treatment for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia found that of the five studies conducted with lavender oil, two studies showed positive outcomes, two showed negative, and one was inconclusive. In the negative sudies, the oil never made contact with the face and was administered far from the nose. In the positive studies, the oil was applied directly on the face or nose. Studies using Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia both had positive and negative outcomes. Duration of treatment appeared to affect outcome, with longer duration treatments showing more positive outcomes in lavender, though location of application appeared to be more influential. Different methods of assessment were used in each of the studies, so it is hard to tell if outcomes were dependent on methods of assessment.
28 elderly people (17 with Alzheimer’s disease, three with vascular dementia, and eight with other diagnoses were involved in a crossover study. Patients were given a control period of 28 days, aromatherapy for 28 days, followed by a 28 day washout period. For aromatherapy, patients were exposed to the aroma of 0.04 mL lemon and 0.08 mL rosemary essential oil in the morning for 2 hours (sympathetic nervous system stimulating) and to 0.08 mL lavender and 0.04 mL orange essential oil for 1.5 hours in the evening (parasympathetic nervous system stimulating). Essential oils were placed on gauze in diffusers with an electric fan. A Fuctional Assessment Staging of Alzheimer’s disease was used to track patients throughout the study. Although there was statistically significant improvement overall for Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale and concept understanding, there were no statistically significant changes in FAST scores or other measurements. This study shows that some improvements can be made with Alzheimer’s disease using aromatherapy, but the cohort was small, and more studies should be carried out to explore the role of increasing the amount of essential oil used and having the essential oil in closer proximity to the client’s olfactory sensing organs as other studies reviews have found that aromatherapy works better when essential oil is closer to the nose. Ventilation systems may also have diluted the amount of essential oil that reached the patients.
28 patients with moderate to severe dementia were randomly assigned lavender aromatherapy or no active treatment three times a day 1 hour after meals for 4 weeks (n=14 for both groups). Two drops llavender oil odorant was placed on the collar of the patients’ clothes. Significant improvements for Neuropsychiatric Inventory were found in the aromatherapy group (from 31 ± 10 to 18 ±12) but not the control group (from 32 ± 11 to 27 ± 12). Subscales of the Nueuropsychiatric Inventory that improved in the aromatherapy group were hallucinations, agitation/aggression, irritability/lability and aberrant moral activity. The Barthel Index (a measurement of functional disability) and Mini-Mental State Examination did not significantly change in either group. No treatment-emergent adverse events were observed in either group. Three patients in the aromatherapy group had no or limited response to lavender essential oil, but the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia subsided instantaneously and dramatically soon after the first lavender aromatherapy attempts in other patients. This study included a small cohort, but provides the basis for further experimentation with people experiencing cognitive decline.
A randomized clinical trial on 59 patients (29 intervention, 30 control) being treated with dialysis three times a week, undergoing dialysis for at least six months, and with an uncompromised sense of smell found no difference in fatigue between the control group and the intervention group before, two weeks, and four weeks after intervention using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Patients in the intervention group inhaled 5% lavender essence for 10 minutes, three times a week during dialysis for 4 consecutive weeks, while the control group continued to receive normal treatment. The authors stated that these results were counter to multiple other studies and that duration of aromatherapy, differences in dose and concentration of essential oil, and administration routes could affect the efficacy of aromatherapy.
A study of 60 patients with myocardial infarction participated in a single blind randomized clinical trial, with 15 female and 15 male patients in the intervention group and 15 female and 15 male patients in the placebo group. 3 patients from each group were crossed over on alternating days. Three droplets of lavender extract were poured on a non-absorbent handkerchief and attached to the patient’s clothes for 20-30 minutes three times a day for three days. The placebo group received sterile water. There was no difference in measured anxiety at the beginning of the trial, but by the end of three days, there was a statistically significant reduction in state anxiety level in the intervention group and significantly increased anxiety in the placebo group, as well as a significant difference between the two groups. By the end of the trial, there was a significant diference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group when compared to the beginning of the trial (131.46± 19.46 to 126.6± 12.88 for systolic and 76.90± 15.45 to 73.20± 10.45 for diastolic). Both groups were using 0.5 mg of alprazolam during the trial.
In this study, subjects were given bright light treatment and aromatherapy simultaneously for 15 minutes per session once a day over five days. Bright light was cycled in 60 second triangular intervals, going from zero to 2500 lx back to zero over 60 seconds in a triangular pattern. The fan speed administering aromatherapy from 5 drops of essential oil on a cotton pad was delivered at 0.17, 0.33, and 0.00 l/s over the same 60 second interval coinciding with the light cycle. Lavender essential oil as the aromatherapy was found to significantly reduce systemic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate (after one subject’s anomalous result was eliminated), but not systolic heart rate. There was no cumulative effect for diastolic blood pressure over the five day period. Significant decreases occurred with anger-hostility, depression-dejection, and tension-anxiety as measured by POMS on each day, but not cumulatively. This could have been because subjects became more comfortable with the study as the days progressed. The impact of treatment lessened over the five days for anger-hostility. Light only treatment did not change blood pressure or POMS test, but did reduce heart rate. Lavender-only treatment was not experimented in this study.
67 women in Taiwan with insomnia were split into a control group (no intervention) and an experimental group who were given aromatherapy for 20 minutes twice a week, or 24 times over 12 weeks with 0.25 cc lavender essential oil and 50 cc water in an ultrasonic ionizer aromatherapy diffuser kept at a distance of 10-15 cm from them. The study found significantly declined mean heart rate after lavender inhalation, and a statistically significant decrease in total score on the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for the experimental group, but not for the control group. The benefit to sleep persisted up to one week after the end of treatment, however heart measurements were not different after 4 and 12 weeks of lavender aromatherapy when compared to the control group.
64 patients with ischemic heart disease in a single-blind study either received no intervention or 3 nights of 9 hours aromatherapy with 2 drops lavender oil on a piece of cotton in a small box within 20 cm from the patient’s pillow. There was a significant difference between sleep quality of the experiment group before and after intervention, and a significant difference between sleep quality of the control and experiment group after aromatherapy.
40 participants took one 10 bath each day for 14 days placing either 3 ml grapeseed oil (or 3 ml of an 80% grapeseed oil/20% lavender oil mixture in their bath. There was no difference between the groups using the UWIST mood scale in energetic arousal, tense arousal, hedonic tone, or general arousal. Anger-frustration was reduced to a greater extent by lavender oil. A second similar study using future events found no difference in response to positive future events, but a greater reduction in negative response rate in the lavender group.
20 healthy participants who rated inhaling lavender (LO) and sweet almond oil (SO) as pleasant were chosen to participate in this study. Each participant took part in baseline measurement (10 minutes), SO inhalation (20 minutes), and LO in sweet almond oil inhalation (20 minutes) during which their autonomic nervous system, mood, and EEG parameters were measured. Statistically significant drops between the SO and LO trials were found with systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, and skin temperature. Statistically significant drops between baseline and SO trials were found for heart rate and respiratory rate. Statistically significant increases for emotional state measurements between SO and LO trials were found for good (from 50.05 to 73.15), active (from 44.05 to 64.20), fresh (from 43.35 to 59.40), and relax (from 51.55 to 73.65) were found, but significant decreases from baseline to SO were found with good (from 61.50 to 50.05) and fresh (from 53.45 to 43.35). Statistically significant decreases between SO and LO trials for emotional state measurements for drowsy (from 40.90 to 30.05) was found, but drowsy measurement also went significantly up from baseline to SO (from 26.55 to 40.90). Statistically significant increase of band power in theta and alpha waves during lavender inhalation in all brain areas with baseline to SO significantly decreasing only 3 of the 15 measurements and statistically increasing 1, but band powers in beta waves were not significantly different. This study supports the use of lavender essential oil aromatherapy as The selection process of participants to rate essential oils as agreeable may have biased this study to show lavender aromatherapy as more effective.
73 children with type 1 diabetes were assessed for pain intensity due to finger-prick from self-monitoring blood glucose over a 4 week period using a visual analog scale (VAS). During the first 2 weeks, there was no intervention, and during the second week, the room where the children finger-pricked had orange or lavender essential oil dispersed. No significant difference was found in VAS scores between the control, lavender, or orange essential oil group.
Lavender oil contact dermatitis in Japan was found to be higher than other oils over a 9 year period from 1990 to 1998, and jumped from around 1% to 8.7% and 13.9% in 1997 and 1998 respectively amongst patients suspected of contact dermatitis. This jump was suspected to be because of an increase in the use of lavender in a variety of products starting around the time of this increase in contact dermatitis. Therefore, do not place lavender essential oil on tape and place it on skin for two days.
Internal use of Lavender Essential Oil:
17 healthy men underwent 2 positron emission tomography measurements following the daily intake of 160 mg of Silexan (capsulized Lavandula angustifolia essential oil) or a placebo for a minimum of 8 weeks each, so 8 weeks on Silexan and 8 weeks with the placebo with a wash-out period of between 14 and 47 days. Serotonin-1A receptor binding potential (5-HT1A) was found to be significantly reduced following the intake of Silexan compared with placebo. No effect was found on gray matter volume. The effect on serotonin-1A receptor could help to explain the anxiolytic effects of Silexan, as opposed to lavender oil affecting the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor which it has been found in other studies not to alter. The sample size of this study was low, and did not include female subjects as 5-HT1A receptor binding has displayed gender differences. The lead author of this study has previously received funding from the trademark owner of Silexan, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH &Co. KG.
A 6 week, double blind randomized study of 77 patients (40 patients Silexan group, 37 lorazepam group; 59 female and 18 male) gave patients 80 mg Silexan and a placebo or 0.5 mg lorazepam and a placebo once per day and showed that Silexan is not less effective than lorazepam for treating generalized anxiety disorder, and the Silexan group showed better global improvement than the lorazepam group. For 2 weeks at the end of the study, patients continued treatment but were given placebo 9 out of 15 days. The final study siee was 69 patients (36 Silexan group, 33 lorazepam group). Silexan and lorazepam reduced Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) total similarly and within the confidence interval of each other. Both groups improved sleep quality during the study. 10 patients in the Silexan group experienced adverse events (nausea: 4 events, breath odor: 3 events, dyspepsia: 2 events) that could not be said definitively not to have been caused by Silexan compared to 7 patients (fatigue: 6, nausea: 1) in the lorazepam group. Patients responded 52.5% of the time for Silexan and 40.5% of the time for lorazepam (response defined as at least a 50% reduction in HAM-A total score between baseline and end of treatment) and remission was 40% for Silexan vs 27% for lorazepam (remission defined as a HAM-A total score below 10 points at week 6). Other studies have suggested that lavender essential oil capsules’ effect on anxiety is due to an effect on the Serotonin-1A receptor binding potential (5-HT1A), but future studies should examine the mechanism of action via lavender essential oil’s potential effect on the gut microbiome and gut dysbiosis. The main author of this study has served as a consultant for Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, who own the trademark for Silexan and sponsored this study. The second author of this study is an employee of Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG.
This randomized, double-blind, double-dummmy, multi-centre trial with four parallel groups including 536 patients (3/4 female, only 2 non-Caucasians) found that HAMA (Hamilton Anxiety) total score decreased the most in Silexan treatment groups given 160 mg/d and 80 mg/d, followed by paroxetine (20 mg/d), then placebo. Silexan at 160 mg/day was found to be significantly different than placebo at week 4, and Silexan at 80 mg/day was found to be significantly different than placebo at week 6, whereas paroxetine was only borderline significantly different after 6 weeks, and not significantly different at weeks 8 and 10. Score differences between beginning and end of the treatment were 14.1± 9.3 for Silexan 160 mg/d, 12.8± 8.7 for Silexan 80 mg/d, 11.3± 8.0 for paroxetine, and 9.5± 9.0 for placebo. Adverse events frequency in the Silexan 160 mg/d and 80 mg/d groups (25.0% and 34.8% respectively) were similar to the placebo group (30.9%) and less than the paroxetine group (40.9%). The organ system class that was different in the Silexan group over placebo was gastrointestinal (with a 3% increased risk difference). No adverse withdrawal related events were observed in any of the treatment groups with down-titration. HAMA total score reductions for Silesan after 10 weeks of treatment were in the range of score reductions published for bromazepam, oxazepam, excitalopram, and duloxetine (anxiolytic drugs). This study was funded by Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, the trademark owner and producer of Silexan. Many of the authors have financial ties to this group as well.
50 (42 female, 8 male) out-patients beween 18 and 70 years old who suffered from neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, or somatization disorder and who had not been treated for those disorders for at least 3 months were included in the study, and 47 patients (39 female, 8 male) were included in the final analysis set. 4 patients included in the final analysis set violated protocol, so 43 patients were included in the PP analysis. All patients were Caucasian, though not intentionally. Patients took 80 mg Silexan (a lavender essential oil capsule) once a day for 6 weeks. Statistically significant decreases were found in frequency of restlessness, anxiety, sleep disturbances, depressed mood, state and trait anxiety, and depression. There was also an improvement of sleep quality on multiple measurements. A causal relationship to Silexan could not be excluded for 21 adverse events from 17 patients (0.02 events per day), and the most likely attributable events were gastrointestinal problems, chiefly eructation. These adverse events should be compared to gastrointestinal disturbances, agitation or insomnia, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction for SSRI drugs. The department that conducted this study has received research grants from Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG (Silexan trademark owner and manufacturer of Silexan), and two authors of the study had been employed by these grants. Two of the authors of the study are employees of Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG.
170 patients with restlessness and agitation according to the criteria of ICD-10 diagnostic categary R45.1 were given 1 capsule of placebo single-blind during a 3-7 day screening period followed by double-blind treatment with 80 mg/d of Silexan or placebo for 10 weeks. 12 and 10 patients from the Silexan and placebo group respectively terminated treatment before the end of the study. The Silexan group HAMA total score decreased on average from 25.5± 6.0 to 13.7±7.0 compared to a decrease from 26.5±6.1 to 16.9±9.8 for the placebo group. There was a statistically significant difference between Silexan and placebo group between weeks 4 and 10, with changes being more pronounced in patients with more severe baseline impairment. There was no significant difference in remission between the Silexan and placebo group, but there was a significant difference (p=0.04) between the Silexan group (48.8%) and the placebo group (33.3%) with patients who classified as responders (HAMA total score decrease by at least 50% compared to baseline). Compared to baseline, there were significantly more patients in the Silexan group (14.0 to 71.4%) than the placebo group (9.5% to 57.8%) who felt never, seldom, or sometimes restless. There was almost no difference in reporting of adverse events between the placebo group and Silexan group. Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. (the holder of the trademark and producer of Silexan) funded this study, and the authors are fiscally involved with the funding provider.
A randomized, double-blind, multi-centre trial over 10 weeks with 216 patients with an anxiety disorder found that 80 mg of encapsulated standardized lavender essential oil (Silexan) significantly improve sleep quality, Hamilton Anxiety total score, and other measures of mental wellbeing. This study supports the internal use of encapsulated standardized lavender essential oil for subsyndromal anxiety disorder. As with other major Silexan studies, the study was funded by Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, the owner of the trademark and producer of Silexan, and authors of this study had other financial ties to this company.
Lavender essential oil was found to unselectively modulate several voltage dependent calcium channels similar in some ways to pregabalin, an established anxiolytic, in mice. This could be a mechanism of action for lavender’s anxiolytic effects.
In a double-blind, randomized, 2-fold crossover study, 160 mg Silexan was found to have no relevant effect no CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 CYP450 enzymes in 17 white Caucasian subjects over 11 days. The cohort was small, and one subject withdrew due to an adverse event.
80 Taiwanese postnatal women with poor sleep quality were split into an experimental group (n=40) and an experimental group (n=40). The control group received regular postpartum care and the experimental group was instructed to drink a cup of lavender tea after spending time to appreciate and smell the aroma once a day. Two weeks after intervention, the experimental group was found to improve on measurements of fatigue, depression, and maternal-infant attachment, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the two groups. There was no improvement in sleep quality in either group. The evaluation criteria may have affected the outcomes of this study, and the instruction to appreciate the smell of tea before consumption may have caused positive effects due to the meditative nature of drinking and appreciating tea as opposed to the effect of the tea itself.
Constituents: β-Linalool, linalylacetate, borneol/lavandulol, β-cis-Ocimene, caryophyllene, lavandulylacetate, β-trans-Ocimene, eucalyptol, terpinenol-4, myrcene (Examine.com, 2017)
Dosage: Standard infusion: 4-8 ounces 1-4 times daily (Easley, 2016f).
Tincture: Dried flower and leaf (1:5, 75% alcohol, 10% glycerin) 1-3 ml (0.2 – 0.6 tsp.) 3 times daily (Easley, 2016f).
Essential oil: Use in baths with Epsom salts for stress, nervousness, depression, and anxiety. Blend in fixed oil for massage to relieve stress. Apply neat for burns and skin irritation (Easley, 2016f).
Aromatherapy: 3 drops lavender extract on cloth near face, breathed for upwards of 20 minutes.
Internal use: 80-160 mg of encapsulated lavender essential oil once per day.
Warnings: Low doses of lavender EO can be irritating to some women (Galetin, 2016). Lavender essential oil can cause contact dermatitis in some people. Internal use of lavender essential oil can cause GI symptoms.
Easley, T. (2016a). An Integrative Approach to the Cardiovascular System [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Easley, T. (2016b). An Integrative Approach to the Nervous System Class 2 [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Easley, T. (2016c). An Integrative Approach to the Nervous System Class 4 [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Easley, T. (2016d). An Integrative Approach to Thyroid Disorders Session 3 [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Easley, T. (2016e). The Gut Part II: Addressing The Stress Response [PDF document]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Easley, T., & Horne, S. (2016f). The Modern Herbal Dispensatory: A Medicine-Making Guide. Berkeley, CA: NAB.
Felter, HW. (1922). The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Portlend, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications.
Fenner, B. (1888c). Fenner’s Complete Formulary: Sixth Edition: Part IIIb. Westfield, New York: B. Fenner.
Fenner, B. (1888a). Fenner’s Complete Formulary: Sixth Edition: Part V. Westfield, New York: B. Fenner.
Fenner, B. (1888b). Fenner’s Complete Formulary: Sixth Edition: Part VI. Westfield, New York: B. Fenner.
Galentin, E. (2016). Navigating the Menopause: Clinical Considerations for Your Herbal Practice. Herbal Academy.
“Lavender – Scientific Review on Usage, Dosage, Side Effects.” Scientific Review on Usage, Dosage, Side Effects | Examine.com. Examine.com, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2017.
McDonald, J., Easley, T., & Chalmers, F. (2016) An Integrative Approach to the Structural System Part 4: Back Pain Differentials, Inflammation and Nerve Pain. [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from The Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine’s Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program.
Scudder, J.M. (1893). Specific Medication and Specific Medicines, Cincinnati, OH: John M. Scudder & Sons, Medical Publishers.
Thomas Easley Full Time Clinical Herbalism Program
Wood, G., & Bache, F. (1849). The Dispensatory of the United States of America. Philadelphia, PA: Grigg, Elliot, and Co.
Easley, class notes Nervine Differentials)